Iridoids Isolation from a Phytochemical Study of the Medicinal Plant Teucrium parviflorum Collected in Iraqi Kurdistan

O. Abdullah, Fuad and H. S. Hussain, Faiq and Sh. Sardar, Abdullah and Gilardoni, Gianluca and Tosi, Solveig and Vidari, Giovanni (2022) Iridoids Isolation from a Phytochemical Study of the Medicinal Plant Teucrium parviflorum Collected in Iraqi Kurdistan. Molecules, 27 (18).

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Herbal medicines are still widely practiced in Kurdistan Region-Iraq, especially by people living in villages on mountainous regions. Among plants belonging to the genus Teucrium (family Lamiaceae), which are commonly employed in the Kurdish traditional medicine, we have analyzed, for the first time, the methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of T. parviflorum aerial parts. The plant is mainly used by Kurds to treat jaundice, liver disorders and stomachache. We aimed to determine the phytochemical profile of the extracts and the structures of the main components, so to provide a scientific rationale for the ancient use of the plant in the ethno-pharmacological field. TLC analysis of the two extracts on silica gel and reversed phase TLC plates, using different visualization systems, indicated similar contents and the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids and sugars. The chlorophyll-free extracts exhibited weak/no antimicrobial activities against a panel of bacteria (MICs = 800–1600 µg/mL) and fungal strains (MICs ≥ 5 mg/mL). At the concentration of 600 µg/mL, the methanol extract showed moderate antiproliferative effects against A549 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in the MTS assay. Moreover, both extracts exhibited a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging action against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (EC50 = 62.11 and 44.25 μg/mL, respectively). In a phytochemical study, a high phenolic content (77.08 and 81.47 mg GAE/g dry extract, respectively) was found in both extracts by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Medium pressure liquid chromatographic (MPLC) separation of the methanol extract on a reversed phase cartridge eluted with a gradient of MeOH in H2O, afforded two bioactive iridoid glucosides, harpagide (1) and 8-O-acetylharpagide (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectral data, chemical reactions, and comparison with the literature. Interestingly, significant amounts of hepatotoxic furano neo-clerodane diterpenoids, commonly occurring in Teucrium species, were not detected in the extract. The wide range of biological activities reported in the literature for compounds 1 and 2 and the significant antiradical effects of the extracts give scientific support to the traditional use in Iraqi Kurdistan of T. parviflorum aerial parts for the preparation of herbal remedies.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Teucrium; Kurdish folk medicine; iridoid glycosides; harpagide; 8-O-acetylharpagide; biological activities
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Q Science > QK Botany
Q Science > QL Zoology
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Depositing User: ePrints deposit
Date Deposited: 03 Sep 2023 13:21
Last Modified: 03 Sep 2023 13:21

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